Lesson 22 - Curso de Ingles Rapido


Prepositions

Preposições são palavras usadas com nomes para mostrar sua relação com outras palavras da sentença.  A seguir, apresentamos as principais preposições em inglês e seu uso:


Time
Place

In
Meses:  In January
Cidades:  In London
Anos, séculos: in 1995
Estados:  In Arkansas
Estações: in winter
Países:  in Nicaragua
Partes do dia: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening
Continentes: In Asia

On

Dias da semana:  on Sunday
Ruas, avenidas, praças:  on Portugal Avenue
Datas (mês +dia) on April the 3rd
Determinadas datas:  On Christimas day

At

Horas:  at 7
Endereços (rua +número):  at 456 Lincoln St.
Certos feriados:  At Christmas
Lugares públicos:  at the club, at the airport, at a party

Na dúvida, as sugestões abaixo podem ajudá-lo a resolvê-la, mas lembre-se:  o uso nem sempre segue a regra geral.

Use in para indicar “dentro de alguma coisa”:

In the box
In the fridge
In a shop
In a garden
In France

Use on para indicar contato:

On a shelf
On a plate
On the grass

Use at para indicar um lugar definido.  Nesse caso, seu sentido é o de “junto a”, “na”:

At the bus stop
At the top
At the bottom
Outras preposições:

About:  sobre, a respeito de:  Tell me about your life.
Above:  acima de:  John’s apartment is above Mara’s.
Across:  através de, do outro lado:  The dog swam across the river.
After:  depois de:  She always arrives after 9 o’clock.
Against:  contra:  The motorbike was against the wall.
Among: entre (vários):  The pencil was among the books.
Around:  em volta de:  They travelled all around the world.
Before:  antes de:  She never arrives before 7 o’clock.
Behind: atrás de:  Tim is behind Peter.
Below:  abaixo de:  Mara lives below John.
Beside:  ao lado de:  The earphones are beside the monitor.
Besides:  além de:  Besides English, she can also speak Russian.
Between:  entre (dois):  He was sitting between the two old ladies.
Beyond:  além de:  The valley is beyond the mountains.
But:  exceto:  Everybody went to the party, but Philip.
By:  por, junto, ao lado de:  Let’s rest by the fireplace.
                                             They live by the sea.
Down:  abaixo, para baixo
Up:  acima, para cima           Their house is halfway down/up the hill
During:  durante:  He was in the army during the war.
For:  a favor de:  He who’s not for us is against us.
For:  por, para, há (tempo)  The train for Moscow leaves at noon.
                                             Fresh air is good for health.
                                             They’ve lived here for ages.
From:  de (origem):  Where are you from?
In front of:  na frente de:  Peter is in front of Tim.
Inside/outside: dentro de/fora de:  Let the dog sleep inside/outside the house.
Instead of:  em vez de:  You should be studying instead of playing video-games.
Into:  para dentro, em:  The cars disappeared into the mist.
Like:  como:  What’s that like?
Near:  perto de:  The post office is near the cathedral.
Off:  para fora (de uma superfície):  Marky fell off his bike. 
Out of:  para fora de:  Take these books out of the box.
Over:  sobre, acima de, por cima de:
                          There were over 1.000 people in the concert
                                       Throw the stone over the wall
Since:  desde:  I’ve known her since 1995.
Through:  através de:  The soldiers walked through the forest.
Till/until:  até (tempo):  The book won’t arrive till tomorrow.
To:  para:  People say that Teresa will go to France next week.
Towards:  para, em direção a:  The nasty boy threw the stone towards the window.
Under:  em baixo de:  the cat lays under the bed.
With/without:  com/sem:  Go with us!
                                          I can’t live without you.
Within:  dentro de :  The noise came from within the stable.
Observações:

1.    Assim como em português, em inglês também temos regência verbal.  Assim, preste atenção aos seguintes verbos e às preposições regidas por eles:

Accuse of
Aim at
Apologise to somebody for
Apply for (a job)
Approve of
Ask for
Believe in
Blame somebody/something for
Break into
Bump into
Care about
Care for
Collide with
Concentrate on
Congratulate someone on/ compliment someone on
Consist of
Crash into
Cut into
Depend on
Die of
Divide into
Drive into
Explain/Describe something to somebody
Fill with
Glance at
Happen to
Have a discussion about
Have a look at
Insist on
Invite someone to (a party)
Laugh at
Leave a place for another place
Listen to
Live on
Look at
Look for
Pay for
Prefer one thing/person to another
Protect somebody/something from (ou against)
Provide with
Read about
Rely on
Run into
Search for
Smile at
Speak to somebody
Specialise in
Spend money on
Split into
Stare at
Succeed in
Suffer from
Supply with
Suspect of
Take care of
Talk about
Talk to somebody
Tell somebody about
Thank somebody for –forgive somebody for
Translate (a book) from one language into another
Wait for
Write (a letter) to

2.    Alguns verbos têm regência com mais de uma preposição, porém com mudança de significado:

Hear about (ouvir sobre)
Hear of (saber que algo ou alguém existe)
Remind somebody about (dizer para alguém não se esquecer)
Remind somebody of (fazer alguém se lembrar de algo)
Shout at somebody (quando se está nervoso)
Shout to (para que nos ouçam)
Throw at somebody/something (para acertá-los)
Throw something to somebody (para que alguém pegue)

3.    Atenção também à regência de alguns substantivos e adjetivos:

A cause of
A increase/decrease/rise/fall in
A need for
A photograph/ picture/map/plan/drawing of
A reason for
An advantage/disadvantage of
Angry/annoyed/furious about something
Angry/annoyed/furious with somebody for doing something
Damage to
Delighted/pleased/satisfied/disappointed with something
Excited/worried/upset/nervous/happy about something
Fed up/ bored with
Invitation to
Nice/kind/good/generous/polite/cruel of (somebody doing something)
Nice/kind/good/generous/polite/cruel to somebody
Relationship/contact/connection with
Solution/answer/key/reply/reaction to
Sorry about something
Sorry for doing something
Surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished at/by something




Exercises:

I. Complete the sentences with in, at, on:

Where´s David?  He´s ____the kitchen.
There´s somebody ____the bus stop.
Angela works _____ a shop.
There are some books ____the shelf
Write your name ____the top of the page.
My house is ____the end of the street.
Milan is _____the north of Italy.
I like to look at the stars ____the sky ____ night.
Sarah arrives _____Monday.
She left Barcelona ______Novermber.
I always feel good _____the morning.
The show starts _____5 o´clock.



I.              Complete with the right preposition:

What are you searching ______?
Is there a reason _______crying?
He insists _______talking to her.
He was acused _______murder.
I´m satisfied _______your work.
Wait ______me!!!!!
I´m fed up ______your complaints!
Could you take care ____the baby while I´m out?
She didn´t suceed _____her last exam.
How many people can you rely ____?
I´m very nervous _______meeting her.
He got an invitation ____the party.
Thank you very much! It´s very kind ___you!
Her sweet smile reminded me ____those wonderful years.


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