Lesson 23 - Curso de Ingles Rapido


Passive Voice

Usamos a voz passiva em inglês quando destacamos a ação do verbo em si, o objeto que recebe a ação.  A pessoa que praticou a ação – o agente – fica em segundo plano e freqüentemente não é mencionado.  Prefere-se a voz passiva, por exemplo, na linguagem impessoal, quando não interessa o agente ou ele é indefinido, ou desconhecido, ou óbvio.  A voz passiva é formada em inglês com o auxiliar to be + past. participle do verbo principal.  Veja a tabela abaixo:

Tempo verbal
Voz ativa
Voz passiva
Simple present
Take/takes
Is/are taken
Simple past
Took
Was/were taken
Present Continuous
Am/is/are taking
Am/is/are being taken
Past continuous
Was/were taking
Was/were being taken
Simple Future
Will take
Will be taken
Simple conditional
Would take
Would be taken
Present perfect
Have/has taken
Have/has been taken
Past perfect
Had taken
Had been taken
Modal auxiliary
Can/could/must/etc...
Modal+be+past.part.

Exemplos:

Voz ativa
Voz passiva
My father is a builder.  He builds the house.
The house is built (by my father).
My father built the house.
The house was built.
My father is building the house.
The house is being built.
My father was building the house.
The house was being built.
My father will build the house.
The house will be built.
My father would build the house.
The house would be built.
My father has built the house.
The house has been built.
My father had built the house.
The house had been built.
My father could build the house.
The house could be built.

Compare estes outros exemplos:

Somebody cleans this room everyday.
This room is cleaned everyday.

Martin washed his car yesterday.
His car was washed yesterday.

The maid will do the dishes later.
The dishes will be done later.


The room looks nice.  Somebody has put it away.
It has been put away.

The room looked nice.  Somebody had put it away.
It had been put away.

She is making a cornmeal cake now.
The cornmeal cake is being made now.

She was making the cornmeal cake when I arrived.
The cornmeal cake was being made when I arrived.


Observações: 

1.    Verbos com dois objetos podem ter duas construções na passiva:

They asked me many questions.

A)     I was asked many questions.
B)     Many questions were asked to me.

2.    Em português não se faz voz passiva com verbos transitivos indiretos.  Em inglês, porém, isso é bastante comum:

Someone is shooting at him.  ®  He’s been shot at.
The manager called off the meeting.  ®  The meeting was called off.

3.    Muitas frases em inglês começam com sujeito indeterminado (Dizem que...; espera-se que...; acredita-se que...) especialmente com verbos como say, think, know, expect, believe, report, hope, presume, prove, understand, consider, etc.  Quando isso acontecer, teremos duas formas na passiva:

(Voz ativa)  They believe that the old castle is haunted.
(Voz passiva) 1.  It is believed that the old castle is haunted.
2.  The old castle is believed to be haunted.

No primeiro caso o pronome It será o sujeito da passiva. 
No segundo caso o sujeito da oração subordinada será o sujeito da voz passiva.  O verbo da oração subordinada passa para o infinitivo com “to” ou para o infinitivo perfeito (to have + past. part.).  O infinitivo perfeito é usado quando o tempo do verbo da oração subordinada for anterior ao tempo do verbo da oração principal:

People say that he had too many enemies.
He is said to have had too many enemies.




Exercises:

Put the sentences below into the passive voice:


The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour in 1941.


Nobel invented the dynamite.


They do lots of research in that university.

           
            My mother will make the cake.


            She would do the homework.

           
            They have thrown litter into rivers.


            He had written the text perfectly.


They think I will not beat the famous player.

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